Virologica Sinica is an academic journal which aims at presenting the cutting-edge basic and applied research on viruses all over the world. The journal publishes peer-reviewed original research articles and reviews, as well as commentaries and letters to the editor, to encompass the latest developments in all branches of virology, including research on animal, plant and microbe viruses. The journal welcomes articles on virus discovery, viral pathogenesis, virus-host interaction, vaccine development, antiviral agents and therapies, and virus related bio-techniques.  
Virologica Sinica, the official journal of Chinese Society for Microbiology, holds an editorial board of experts from a broad range of research fields worldwide, and will serve as a platform for the communication and exchange of academic information and ideas in an international context.
1. Research articles
Research articles belong to the full length article type, and should include elements as follows: title, running title, and byline; correspondent footnote; abstract and keywords; introduction; materials and methods; results; discussion; acknowledgements; compliance; author contributions; references; figure legends and figures/tables. The article length generally should not exceed 6,000 words, and detailed requirements are in the Format section.
2. Review articles
Review articles are summaries of important developments in virology research. They must be based on published articles and may address any subject within the scope of the journal. Reviews must have abstracts and keywords, and the body may have section headings and/or paragraph lead-ins. The article length can be 4,000 words and more.
3. Letters
Letters are intended for the presentation of brief observations and published in a short-form format. The text should not exceed 1,500 words (exclusive of references); the number of figures and tables should be kept into one, while references are limited to 15.
4. Commentaries
Articles of commentaries are communications concerning topics relevant to the readership of Virologica Sinica and may include Editorials, Perspectives, News & Views, Meeting reports and Recollections. The article length may vary depending on article types.
The manuscript should be double-spaced throughout using 11pt Times New Roman. Number all pages.
Research articles should begin with section of title page, and followed by abstract, keywords, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, compliance, author contributions, references, figure legends and figures/tables. Gene symbols and virus species should be italicized; protein products are not italicized. Non-standard abbreviations should be defined when first used in the text.
1. Title page:
The title page should include: Full title (a brief declarative statement of the major findings of the research), Running title (no more than 60 characters including spaces), each author’s affiliation and corresponding author's contact information (Phone, Fax and Email).
2. Abstract:
The abstract should briefly (no more than 250 words) describe in complete sentences the scope of the investigation, the results obtained and the major conclusions, and 3-7 keywords should be given after the abstract. There is no Abstract, no sections on Introduction, Methods, Results or Discussion in “Letter type” publications.
3. Introduction:
The introduction should begin with a brief introduction of the background related to the research and should be as concise as possible.
4. Materials and Methods:
The materials and methods should be described clearly and referenced in sufficient detail. For commonly used materials and methods (e.g., media and protein concentration determinations), a simple reference is sufficient.
5. Results:
The results should present the experimental data in tables and figures with suitable descriptions. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Number figures and tables in numerical order like 1, 2, 3, etc., and be sure to cite all figures and tables.
6. Discussion:
The discussion should focus on the interpretation and significance of the findings with concise objective comments. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction.
7. Acknowledgments:
The acknowledgements should include people who contributed to the work but do not fit the criteria for authors and financial supports along with the numbers of grants.
8. Compliance:
In order to comply with the ethical requirements of the journal, the following statements must be included in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethics Guidelines”.
For studies with animal subjects, please include:
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
For studies with human subjects, please include:
Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.
For articles do not contain any human or animal studies, please include:
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Besides, the author(s) should declare whether he (she) has competing interest in this section.
9. Author contributions:
According to ICMJE guidelines, authorship should be based on the following four criteria: 1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and 2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) Final approval of the version to be published; and 4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Other contributors who do not meet the four criteria for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgements section.
Figures and images should be labeled sequentially, numbered and cited in the text. Figures should be submitted separately, and referred in the text of the paper. Acceptable formats for figures are: TIFF, AI, EPS, PSD and JPEG. Pixel requirements are:
a) 300 dpi for grayscale and color
b) 600 dpi for combination art (lettering and images)
c) 1,200 dpi for line art
Figure legends should appear on a separate manuscript page after the Reference section, with a title of “Titles and legends to figures”. Detailed experimental methods should not appear in figure legends. Define all symbols used in the figure and define all abbreviations that are not used in the text. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs, and indicate the type of stain used. Line chart should express the data clearly and precisely. X and Y axises should be accurately and briefly marked and error bar should be provided if necessary.
The accepted format for regular tables is Microsoft Word/Excel. Each table should be typed at the end of the references, numbered and titled, and cited in the text. The headings should be sufficiently clear, and explanatory footnotes for abbreviations are necessary.
Please do not submit copyrighted figures or tables. If so, authors are responsible for acquiring reuse permission.
The citations for Virologica Sinica in the article body are adhered to author-year system. Reference list are ordered alphabetically as the first author’s family name. References listed in the References section should include only publications that are published or in press. PhD thesis cannot be cited as references. The Endnote style of Virologica Sinica can be downloaded here, or send to you via email upon request.
An example of reference style:
Tian YJ, Ou JH. 2015. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Virol Sin, 30:85–91.
The reference information appears as (Tian et al, 2015) in the article body.
Names used for viruses should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and reported on the ICTV Virus Taxonomy website. In addition, the standard usage of virus specie names should follow recommendations of the ICTV: when the entire species is discussed as a taxonomic entity, the species name, as with other taxa, is italic and has the first letter and any proper nouns capitalized (e.g., Tobacco mosaic virus). When the behavior or manipulation of individual viruses is discussed, the vernacular (e.g., tobacco mosaic virus) should be used.
Genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles should be italicized while proteins should be set in roman type.
The virus name and abbreviations not so conventional (like PCR, DNA, ATP) must be written out in full, both in the title of the manuscript and at the first mention in the manuscript; after that, abbreviations mentioned may be used.
The use of SI units is strongly encouraged. If you do not use these exclusively, you will be asked to standardize the units in copyediting step. Authors are encouraged to submit their manuscripts via online submission at Files should be uploaded individually, and are automatically combined into a single PDF file by the submission system. The original submission should be deleted when submitting a revision because the original one has been automatically saved in the system.
If you have problems with the online submission, please contact editorial office at Phone: 86-27-87199157. Supplementary material is not necessary to the manuscript but it provides greater depth and background. It can be one of the following categories: Dataset, Figure, Table, Text, or Video. This material should be cited in the main document with a leading capital S (e.g., Figure S1, Figure S2……) and will be subjected for peer review. Also it should be publication-ready because it will appear online without editing or typesetting. The requirements for supplementary tables or figures should be coincidence with the formal figures or tables. The citations for Virologica Sinica in the article body are adhered to author-year system. Reference list is ordered alphabetically as the first author’s family name. The Endnote style of Virologica Sinica can be downloaded here.
How to add “Virologica 2015.ens” into EndNote
1. To add Virologica style into you EndNote style library.
Please open "program files" (usually in C Disk) -> open "EndNote" folder -> open "Styles" folder ->leave "Virologica 2015.ens" in the folder.
2. To format inserted references using Virologica Sinica style in Microsoft Word.
Please open “Bibliography” -> select “Format Bibliography” -> at “with output”, using “browse” to find “Virologica 2015”, and click “OK” -> ready to format.
3. An example of VS reference style:
Gai WW, Zhang Y, Zhou DH, Chen YQ, Yang JY, Yan HM. 2011. PIKA provides an adjuvant effect to induce strong mucosal and systemic humoral immunity against SARS-CoV. Virol Sin. 26: 81–94.
The reference information appears as (Gai et al., 2011) in the article body.
Virologica Sinica is devoted to provide all authors with an efficient, rigorously, and constructive editorial process. All manuscripts received will be subjected to an initial quality control, including the originality, the quality and the format. Those that pass the first examination will be assigned to an Editor mostly from the Editorial Board, and occasionally a Guest Editor of the relevant field will be invited to act as the role. The Editor will be completely responsible for the review process, decide whether the manuscript will be sent out for peer-review or reject without external review.
At least two comments will be generated based on the originality, rationality, significance and overall quality of the submission. The Editor will weigh all comments and render a decision.
General decision includes:
Major Revision
Minor Revision

A decision letter will be directly emailed to the corresponding author from the Editor for decisions like minor or major revision. If the manuscript is rejected, the Editor-in-Chief will reevaluate the manuscript and cautiously make a final decision.
If the manuscript needs revision, a point-to-point response letter should be uploaded with the revision. The response letter should follow Q/A format and detailed page and line number should be provided for the revisions.
If at any time the corresponding author has a question about the status of a manuscript, please contact the editorial office at An example of Point Response Letter can be downloaded here.
A copyright (download here) should be signed by all of authors and returned together with the proof. The author warrants that his/her contribution is original and that he/she has full power to make this grant. Transfer of copyright to Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or other reproductions of similar nature.
Authors retain the copyright to the article if it is published with Open Access option. The corresponding author and the first author will be notified for the proof confirmation via email. Please notice that the final proof is the last chance that authors can correct mistakes. The revision traces should be kept in the returned proof. The corresponding author is fully responsible for the final version. Any major changes are not accepted in this stage. Virologica Sinica provides the authors with Open Access options to publish their research. If the open choice is selected, the corresponding author will receive an email from Springer with a link to your MyPublication pages after the article is accepted. The journal open access policies abide by the liberal Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license. The CC BY license permits commercial and non-commercial re-use of an open access article, as long as the original author and source are properly attributed. Publishing Open Choice involves an open access publication fee of US$ 3000/EUR 2200. You can choose to pay by credit card or to receive an invoice. For every issue of Virologica Sinica, an elaborate cover picture related to one of the articles published will be dedicated to the readers. Authors who would like to have a color photograph considered should submit a high resolution image and a cover story when submitting a manuscript, or email the picture and cover story to the editorial office at All cover pictures should be relevant to the content of the article published in the issue, and have artistic value. When a photograph has been selected, the author will be contacted by the editorial office for additional information concerning the alteration and confirmation of the final version. The author should be responsible for the copyright for a submitted image. There are no page/color charges to authors, and publishing in Virologica Sinica is completely free. In addition, the journal can provide free English language editing service upon author’s request. Correction and retraction apply for the changes of the articles published in Virologica Sinica. A correction will be published to document and correct substantial errors that significantly affect the content or understanding of the work reported and will be linked to the original article.
A retraction is reserved for major errors or academic misconduct. It will be published to explain the reason why the article is retracted and will also include the title, authorship and DOI of the original article. Mailing address: The Virologica Sinica Editorial Office
Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
No.44, Xiao Hong Shan, Wuhan 430071, China
Office phone: 86-27-87199157 Email:
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