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Immunofl uorescence microscopy of a chimeric mouse liver repopulated with human hepatocytes. Productive infection of human hepatocytes within a chimeric mouse by hepatitis C virus (HCV) reveals antagonism of the RIGI- like receptor pathway. Due to cleavage of the central adaptor protein MAVS, HCV (green) infected hepatocytes do not exhibit nuclear translocation of the innate immune activating transcription factor IRF3 (red). Evasion of the innate immune system is a central event in HCV establishing chronic infection and inducing hepatocellular carcinoma. Read more about the RIG-I-like receptors signaling in the innate antiviral immunity from the review article wrote by John Errett and Michael Gale (p163-173). (Image courtesy of Nanette Crochet from the Gale laboratory.)
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Innate immunity is critical for the control of virus infection and operates to restrict viral susceptibility and direct antiviral immunity for protection from acute or chronic viral-associated diseases including cancer. RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic RNA helicases that function as ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Although IL-12 plays a critical role in priming Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling only induces low amounts of IL-12 in dendritic cells and macrophages, implying the existence of stringent regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we sought to uncover ..., Abstract
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Research Article
HEp-2 cells persistently infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a heterogeneous mixture of viral antigen-positive and -negative variants; however, the mechanism through which viral replication becomes latent remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanism by ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Influenza viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, posing new threats for public health. Control and treatment of influenza depends mainly on vaccination and chemoprophylaxis with approved antiviral drugs. Identification of specific epitopes derived from influenza viruses has ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that ..., Abstract
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Taken together with our previous report, current results provide cursory evidence that the sinecatechins’ mechanism of action likely entails some degree of modulation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes, in particular, the NF-κB-pathway. It is possible that sinecatechins also upregulate the ..., Abstract
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Our results suggest that TTV is extremely common in the general Chinese population, including infants, providing further evidence that TTV is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide(Mancuso et al., 2013). Furthermore, the overall prevalence of TTV infection based on UTR-PCR in healthy ..., Abstract
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Based on the findings of the present study, we conclude that cats can be infected with human influenza viruses as well as avian influenza viruses. Actually, the recent study has shown that both human-type(α2, 6-linked sialic acid) and avian-type(α2, 3-linked sialic acid)influenza virus receptors ..., Abstract
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In summary, this report documents the generation of antisense transcripts from clone127 of the R29 strain of BIV. An antisense ORF was predicted, and antisense transcripts were detected in 293T cells transfected with DNA containing the BIV127 proviral sequence. More importantly, the antisense ..., Abstract
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In this study, we developed a real-time PCR assay for RHDV detection and quantitation. With this method, the distribution of RHDV in the internal organs and body fluids of infected rabbits was analyzed. The highest viral RNA load was found in the spleen, followed by that in the liver. The virus is ..., Abstract
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In this report, an aquatic birnavirus was isolated from rainbow trout fry, Onhorhynchus mykiss, during a fish health inspection in fish-farms in the west region of Ukraine near the rivers Siret and Cheremosh(Chernivtsi region). Preliminary examination of infected fish revealed a range of lesions ..., Abstract
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Many developing countries lack a functional health care system, especially African countries. Such a system is not only important to monitor emergencies but also to develop an integrated response; otherwise, any epidemic can spread rapidly(as was observed in the case of Ebola) and pose huge ..., Abstract
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Erratum to: VIROLOGICA SINICA 2013, 28 (6): 360-367 DOI 10.1007/s12250-013-3393-7 Published Online: 2 December 2013, Abstract
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