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Virologica Sinica, 31 (4) : 300, 2016
Research Article
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 Clade 2.3.2.1c virus in migratory birds, 2014–2015
1. Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Shenzhen 518112, China
2. CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
3. CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology (CASPMI), Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4. Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taishan 271000, China
5. CAS Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
6. Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
7. Research Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
8. Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve, State Forestry Administration, Xining 810007, China
9. Office of Director-General, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
 Correspondence: Beeyh@im.ac.cn;shiwf@ioz.ac.cn
(513.28KB)  (3690.66KB)  
Abstract
A novel Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortant virus caused several outbreaks in wild birds in some regions of China from late 2014 to 2015. Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, the viruses possess a stable gene constellation with a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA, a H9N2-derived PB2 gene and the other six genes of Asian H5N1-origin. The Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortants displayed a high genetic relationship to a human H5N1 strain (A/Alberta/01/2014). Further analysis showed that similar viruses have been circulating in wild birds in China, Russia, Dubai (Western Asia), Bulgaria and Romania (Europe), as well as domestic poultry in some regions of Africa. The affected areas include the Central Asian, East Asian-Australasian, West Asian-East African, and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways. These results show that the novel Clade 2.3.2.1c reassortant viruses are circulating worldwide and may have gained a selective advantage in migratory birds, thus posing a serious threat to wild birds and potentially humans.
Received: 22 Feb 2016  Accepted: 8 Jun 2016  Published online: 30 Jul 2016
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