1. CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to host cells and the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Several membrane factors are involved in virus entry, including C-type lectins and nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA. The post-fusion crystal structure of the Gc protein suggests that it is a class II membrane fusion protein, similar to the E/E1 protein of flaviviruses and alphaviruses. The virus particles are internalized into host cell endosomes through the clathrin-dependent pathway, where the low pH activates the fusion of the virus with the cell membrane. With information from studies on other bunyaviruses, herein we will review our knowledge of the entry process of SFTSV.