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Issue of Virologica Sinica
How many different viruses are there on our planet? In the latest International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report, the list of named viruses has grown to 4404 species. What about unknown viruses? A study on estimating unknown viral diversity in Pteropus giganteus suggests that at least 320,000 different viruses infect mammals (5513 species). Following this method, there could be 100 million viruses in 1.7 million known species of animals, plants, insects and algae. When considering about viruses of bacteria, archaea, and other single-celled organisms, and viruses in less-studied biosphere (e.g. the ocean system), the number could be 1031. Just as the exploration of the Universe, scientists have never stopped taking efforts to further discover the viral universe and make a better life. On this issue’s cover, 3D-printed herpesvirus, adenovirus, poliovirus, hepatis B virus, and Zika virus (from left to right) are artistically presented in the vast space near the Leo constellation. 3D-printed viruses are courtesy of Dr. Ding Gao from the Core Facility of Wuhan Institute of Virology.
Article List:
Letter ( Advanced Online Publication)
Anelloviruses are single-strand circular DNA viruses and ubiquitous within the human population. Although there is no direct evidence, many studies have suggested the anelloviruses may be associated with a variety of diseases. In this study, a novel torque teno mini virus (TTMV) was detected in a ..., Abstract
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Research Article( Advanced Online Publication)
Intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been demonstrated to be highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless,the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV),an important co-infected agent with HIV,among this population remained obscure.We conducted a systematic review on the ..., Abstract
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Letter ( Advanced Online Publication)
Q3G is a natural derivative of quercetin and is already widely used in various foods and drinks.Our results clearly demonstrated that Q3G exerts antiviral activity against ZIKV in both tissue culture and knockout mice, and that post-exposure in vivo treatment with Q3G could have a beneficial ..., Abstract
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Research Article( Advanced Online Publication)
We previously constructed a herpes simplex virus 1(HSV-1) UL7 mutant virus (M1) and showed that a partial deletion mutation of the UL7 gene led to a lower proliferative rate and an attenuated phenotype.Using the M1 mutant,we further modified the UL41 gene,which encodes another ..., Abstract
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Research Article( Advanced Online Publication)
Feasible and effective cell models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are required for investigating the complete lifecycle of this virus,including the early steps of viral entry.Resistance to dimethyl sulfoxide/polyethylene glycol (DMSO/PEG),hNTCP expression,and a differentiated state are the ..., Abstract
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Research Article( Advanced Online Publication)
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are present during chronic infection,but the relative contributions of these effector mechanisms to viral containment remain unclear.Here,using an in vitro model involving autologous CD4+ T cells ..., Abstract
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Review( Advanced Online Publication)
Lipids are essential for mammalian cells to maintain many physiological functions.Emerging evidence has shown that cancer cells can develop specific alterations in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism to facilitate their survival and various malignant behaviors.To date,the precise role of cellular ..., Abstract
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Letter ( Advanced Online Publication)
In this study, we improved the most commonly used methods for MS detection of SUMOylated sites and used an E. coli recombination SUMOylation system with SUMO-1 (T95R). This system provides fast enrichment of SUMOylated viral protein in less than 2 days, and shows advantage over the method of ..., Abstract
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Research Article( Advanced Online Publication)
Skin-resident dendritic cells (DCs) likely encounter incoming viruses in the first place,and their migration to lymph nodes following virus capture may promote viral replication.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear.In the present study,we found that compared to ..., Abstract
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Letter ( Advanced Online Publication)
In summary, we show here that HCV infection is associated with an upregulation of ARF4, which promotes HCV replication. Upon HCV infection, CREB3 was redistributed to nucleus and activated ARF4 transcription.Our studies demonstrate a host factor ARF4 upregulated in HCV replication, which may ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Innate immunity provides immediate defense against viral infection.Influenza A virus (IAV) is able to get past the first line of defense.Elucidation of the molecular interaction between influenza factors and the newly recognized host players in the innate response might help in our understanding of ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Little is known about the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1-positive individuals in Suzhou,China.To elucidate the transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance mutation (ADR) profiles,we collected blood specimens from 127 drug-naïve and 117 first-line drugtreated ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases,including autoimmune disorders,and it could activate innate immunity. However,there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201+ restriction ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Diverse species of rodents and shrews,which are abundant worldwide,harbor a variety of viruses; some of these are closely related to human viruses and possess zoonotic potential.Previously studies have demonstrated that the mammarenavirus and hantavirus carried by rodents or shrews could cause ..., Abstract
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Research Article
The emergence of highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants in China caused huge economic losses in 2010.Since then,large-scale sporadic outbreaks of PED caused by PEDV variants have occasionally occurred in China.However,the molecular diversity and epidemiology of PEDV in ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Since 2010,variant strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused disasters in the pork industry.The spike (S) protein,as the major immunity-eliciting antigen,has previously been used for serological testing and has been found to correlate significantly with the results of the serum ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Rabies remains a public health threat that kills approximately 59,000 people worldwide each year, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore,developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine is crucial for rabies control in these ..., Abstract
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Letter
As a major protein of cypovirus capsid shell,VP5 performs as the clamp protein to stabilize the capsid shell structure (Yu et al.,2008).And as a part of viral RNA (vRNA) replication machinery,VP5 has been found to possess an ATP-independent RNA chaperoning activity (Yang et al.,2014).Here,we report ..., Abstract
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Letter
Taken together,we have successfully utilized the HDV ribozyme in the preparation of homogeneous RNA sample that may be free of sequence limitation at the 3'-end.To make the HDV approach-derived RNA suitable for directing de novo RNA synthesis by the WNV NS5 RdRP, the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at its ..., Abstract
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Letter
In the present study,we used polyclonal antibodies (pAb) raised against SsRV and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for the SsRV capsid protein p29 to successfully develop a rapid and simple immunochromatographic strip for the facile detection of SsRV., Abstract
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Letter
In conclusion,we first found that HIV infection upregulates the ATL1 mRNA.Up-regulation of ATL1 contributes to HIV-1 replication and down-regulation of ATL1 in host cells inhibited the viral replication.The further research found that ATL1 promoted the level of Env expression on the cell surface ..., Abstract
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Letter
In summary,the present study demonstrates that the forces favoring intra-animal diversification can cause the emergence of variants that,benefiting of their diversity at the population level,are able to succeed and spread in an often highly homogeneous environment,and to be further selected later., Abstract
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