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Issue of Virologica Sinica
Chikungunya (chik-un-GUN-yuh) virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the genus Alphavirus in family Togaviridae, which is named from the symptom it causes (meaning “disease that bends up the joints” in Tanzanian). Typically, the disease begins with a sudden high fever, maculopapular rash, and severe joint pain. Other symptoms will subside within 1~2 weeks, but the continued arthritis would be lasted from a few months to several years, exerting substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. CHIKV has two transmission cycles: one is normally maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving Aedes mosquitos and wild primates living in forests of western Africa; the other is direct human-mosquito-human transmission which occurs in Asia and Americas, especially in India and Indian Ocean regions. This issue presents three articles on the CHIKV topic, reporting the CHIKVs from the recent outbreak in Pakistan, analyzing the evolution and transmission, and reviewing the recent progress on CHIKV’s epidemiology, clinical presentation, molecular virology, diagnostic approaches, host immune response, vaccine development, and available animal models. It is hoped this special collection could shed lights on future studies of CHIKV. The cover image is courtesy of Jin Sun and Xia Jin (Institut Pasteur of Shanghai).
Article List:
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. After decades of sporadic outbreaks, it re-emerged in Africa, Asia, India Ocean and America suddenly, causing major regional epidemics recently and becoming a notable ..., Abstract
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Chronic hepatitis B infection is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a total cure is yet to be achieved. The viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the key to establish a persistent infection within hepatocytes. Current antiviral strategies have no effect on the pre-existing ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Feasible and effective cell models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are required for investigating the complete lifecycle of this virus, including the early steps of viral entry. Resistance to dimethyl sulfoxide/polyethylene glycol (DMSO/PEG), hNTCP expression, and a differentiated state are ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of potato and can cause an 80% production loss. To control wilt using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized twelve lytic bacteriophages from different water sources in Kenya and China. Based on the lytic curves of the phages with ..., Abstract
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Research Article
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are present during chronic infection, but the relative contributions of these effector mechanisms to viral containment remain unclear. Here, using an in vitro model involving autologous CD4+ T ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Skin-resident dendritic cells (DCs) likely encounter incoming viruses in the first place, and their migration to lymph nodes following virus capture may promote viral replication. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the present study, we found that ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 180 million people worldwide. Significant progress has been made since the establishment of in vitro HCV infection models in cells. However, the replication of HCV is complex and not completely understood. Here, we found that the expression of ..., Abstract
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Research Article
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, which has infected millions of people in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe since it reemerged in India and Indian Ocean regions in 2005–2006. Starting in the middle of November 2016, CHIKV has been widely spread, and more than ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes epidemics widely in the world especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. Phylogenetic analysis has found that the CHIKV lineages were associated with the spatial and temporal distributions, which were related to the virus ..., Abstract
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In summary, we show here that HCV infection is associated with an upregulation of ARF4, which promotes HCV replication. Upon HCV infection, CREB3 was redistributed to nucleus and activated ARF4 transcription. Our studies demonstrate a host factor ARF4 upregulated in HCV replication, which may ..., Abstract
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In this study, we improved the most commonly used methods for MS detection of SUMOylated sites and used an E. coli recombination SUMOylation system with SUMO-1 (T95R). This system provides fast enrichment of SUMOylated viral protein in less than 2 days, and shows advantage over the method of ..., Abstract
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Anelloviruses are single-strand circular DNA viruses and ubiquitous within the human population. Although there is no direct evidence, many studies have suggested the anelloviruses may be associated with a variety of diseases. In this study, a novel torque teno mini virus (TTMV) was detected in a ..., Abstract
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Q3G is a natural derivative of quercetin and is already widely used in various foods and drinks. Our results clearly demonstrated that Q3G exerts antiviral activity against ZIKV in both tissue culture and knockout mice, and that post-exposure in vivo treatment with Q3G could have a beneficial ..., Abstract
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The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) encoded by RNA viruses represent a unique class of nucleic acid polymerases. Unlike other classes of single-subunit polymerases, viral RdRPs have evolved a unique conformational change in their palm domain to close the active site during catalysis. The ..., Abstract
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