Special Issue on Oncogenic Viruses and Cancer
Editor(s): Guangxiang (George) Luo, MD/MPH, Professor
University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA; Peking University Health Science Center, China
Viruses are leading causes of different types of human cancers, accounting for about 20% of total cases. Seven viruses are currently considered oncogenic viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8 (HHP8), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis are complex and may involve the induction of chronic inflammation, disruption of host genetic and epigenetic integrity and homeostasis, interference with cellular DNA repair mechanisms resulting in genome instability and cell cycle dysregulation. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by infection and replication of oncogenic viruses may lead to the appearance and proliferation of cancer stem cells, which are important for the initiation, progression, metastasis, relapse, and chemotherapy resistance of cancers. The cover illustrates the seven oncoviruses that could lead to human cancer.
Editorial
This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer. It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). These review articles are contributed by experts on specific ..., Abstract
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Review
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its chronic infection can lead to chronic liver inflammation and the accumulation of genetic alterations to result in the oncogenic transformation of hepatocytes. HBV can also sensitize hepatocytes to ..., Abstract
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Review
The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such ..., Abstract
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Review
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause virtually all cervical cancers, the second leading cause of death by cancer among women, as well as other anogenital cancers and a subset of head and neck cancers. Approximately half of women, who develop cervical cancer die from it. Despite the optimism that ..., Abstract
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Review
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV episomes are detected in almost all NPC cells. The role of EBV in NPC pathogenesis has long been postulated but remains enigmatic. In contrast to infection of B lymphocytes, EBV infection does not ..., Abstract
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Review
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that subvert cellular metabolism and pathways to mediate their own replication—normally at the expense of the host cell. Polyomaviruses are a group of small DNA viruses, which have long been studied as a model for eukaryotic DNA replication. ..., Abstract
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Review
It has now been over twenty years since a novel herpesviral genome was identified in Kaposi’s sarcoma biopsies. Since then, the cumulative research effort by molecular biologists, virologists, clinicians, and epidemiologists alike has led to the extensive characterization of this tumor ..., Abstract
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Review
Innate immunity is critical for the control of virus infection and operates to restrict viral susceptibility and direct antiviral immunity for protection from acute or chronic viral-associated diseases including cancer. RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic RNA helicases that function as ..., Abstract
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