Editor(s): Mengji Lu, PhD, Professor
University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Viral infection in human induces various levels of host immune response, through which the host aims to eliminate those intruders. However, some viruses could often evade immune system and result in chronic infections. Almost 500 million people world-wide are chronically infected with hepatitis B and C viruses and human immune deficiency virus. Thus, a special issue focusing on the interaction of the host immune system with HBC, HCV, and HIV, and new immunomodulations of these chronic viral diseases is presented as the first issue of 2014 in Virologica Sinica. The cover depicts hepatitis C viruses approaching the B lymphocyte.