Jiang-guo ZHANG, Xiao-min QIN, Xiao-jing WANG, Wei-ming YAN, Chuan-long ZHU, Xiao-ping LUO and Qin NING. A Primary Study of the Subgroups of T Lymphocytes in MHV-3 Induced Chronic Viral Hepatitis*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 339-346.
To study the contribution of T cell subsets in the pathogenesis of Murine hepatitis virus Type 3 (MHV-3) induced chronic viral hepatitis in C3H/Hej mice, ninety C3H/Hej mice were chosen to individually receive 10 plaque forming units（PFU）of MHV-3 intraperitoneally. The changes of virus titer and pathology in liver tissue were examined by standard plaque assay and by the hematoxylin/eosin (HE) staining method from 2 days post MHV-3 infection. The ratios of T cell subsets including CD3+CD4+CD8-, CD3+CD4-CD8+, CD3+CD4-CD8-, CD3+CD4+CD25+, CD3+CD4+CD25- and CD3+ CD4-CD25+ T lymphocyte of total T lymphocytes in blood, spleen and liver were examined at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 days post MHV-3 infection by flow cytosorting. We observed that the virus titer raised and showed persistent virus duplications and inflammatory changes in the livers of C3H/Hej mice from 2 days post MHV-3 infection. The double negative T cell (DN Treg cell) and CD4+CD25+ T cell ratios increased significantly from 2 days post MHV-3 infection in C3H/Hej mice, and CD3+CD4+CD8-, CD3+CD4-CD8+, CD3+CD4+CD25- and CD3+CD4-CD25+ T cell ratios decreased accordingly. In conclusion, the changes of virus titer and pathology in the livers of C3H/Hej mice post MHV-3 suggest their contribution to viral persistence. Further characterizations of DN Treg cells are that infection indicates that MHV-3 could induce the chronic inflammation in livers of C3H/Hej mice. The increase of the DN Treg cell and CD4+CD25+ T cell ratios in C3H/Hej mice post MHV-3 infection suggests that DN Treg cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells may both have important suppressive immunomodulation functions in the development of chronic viral hepatitis and have important roles in the virus persistent infection. Further characterizations of DNT cell and CD4+CD25+ T cell are under investigation.
Fu-ying ZHENG, Guo-zhen LIN, Chang-qing QIU, Kui-zhang YUAN and Jun-ying SONG. Expression and Antigenic Characterization of the Epitope-G1 of the Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 347-352.
The epitope-G1 gene of Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) glycoprotein was synthesised by PCR and cloned into expression vector pPIC9K to construct recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-G1. Then the pPIC9K-G1 was linearized and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant P. pastoris strains were selected by a G418 transformation screen and confirmed by PCR. After being induced with methanol, an expressed protein with 26 kDa molecular weight was obtained, which was much bigger than the predicted size (15.54 kDa). Deglycosylation analysis indicated the recombinant G1 was glycosylated. Western blot and ELISA tests, as well as rabbit immunization and specificity experiments indicated that the target protein had both higher reaction activity and higher immunocompetence and specificity. The recombinant G1 protein could be used as a coating antigen to develop an ELISA kit for bovine ephemeral fever diagnosis.
Guang-qing LIU, Fei WANG, Zheng NI, Tao YUN, Bin YU, Jiong-gang HUANG and Jian-Ping CHEN. Complete Genomic Sequence of a Chinese Isolate of Duck Hepatitis Virus*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 353-359.
The complete genomic sequence of Duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV-1) ZJ-V isolate was sequenced and determined to be 7 691 nucleotides (nt) in length with a 5′-terminal un-translated region (UTR) of 626 nt and a 3′-terminal UTR of 315 nt (not including the poly(A) tail). One large open reading frame (ORF) was found within the genome (nt 627 to 7 373) coding for a polypeptide of 2 249 amino acids. Our data also showed that the poly (A) tail of DHV-1 has at least 22 A's. Sequence comparison revealed significant homology (from 91.9% to 95.7%) between the protein sequences of the ZJ-V isolate and those of 21 reference isolates. Although DHV-1 has been classified as an unassigned virus in the Picornaviridae family, its genome showed some unique characteristics. DHV-1 contains 3 copies of the 2A gene and only 1 copy of the 3B gene, and its 3′-NCR is longer than those of other picornaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis to do sequence homology based on the VP1 protein sequences showed that the ZJ-V isolate shares high sequence homology with the reported DHV-1 isolates (from 92.9% to 99.2%), indicating that DHV-1 is genetically stable.
Chuan-hai ZHANG, Xin-jian LIU, Yi-fei WANG, Jia-hai LU, Huan-ying ZHENG, Sheng XIONG, Mei-ying ZHANG and Qiu-ying LIU. Immune Responses and Histopathological Changes in Rabbits Immunized with Inactivated SARS Coronavirus*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 360-365.
To evaluate the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), three groups of rabbits were immunized three times at 2-week intervals with inactivated vaccine + adjuvant, adjuvant, and normal saline respectively. Eight batchs of serum were sampled from the auricular vein at day 7 to day 51, and specific IgG antibody titers and neutralizing antibody titers were detected by indirect ELISA and micro-cytopathic effect neutralizing test. Antibody specificity was identified by proteinchip assay. Histopathological changes were detected by H&E staining. The results showed that, rabbits in the experimental group immunized with inactivated SARS-CoV all generated specific IgG antibodies with neutralizing activity, which suggested the inactivated SARS-CoV could preserve its antigenicity well and elicit an effective humoral immune responses. The peak titer value of specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody reached 1:40960 and 1:2560 respectively. In the experimental group, no obvious histopathological changes was detected in the H&E stained slides of heart, spleen, kidney and testis samples, but the livers had slight histopathological changes, and the lungs presented remarkable histopathological changes. These findings are of importance for SARS-CoV inactivated vaccine development.
Dong XI, Zhi-Mo WANG, Sui GAO, Chuan-Long ZHU, Jian-Wen GUO, Xiao-Ping LUO and Qin Ning. Construction of shRNA of Fulminant Hepatitis Related Gene mfgl2 and Investigation of Its Biological Effects in vitro*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 366-373.
This study was designed to explore the RNA interference technique in inhibition of the expression of the mouse fibrinogen like protein 2 (mfgl2), which has been reported to be involved in the development a variety of diseases including fulminant viral hepatitis. A plasmid named p-mfgl2shRNA, complementary to the sequence of mfgl2 was constructed, while another short hairpin RNA (shRNA) which was a mutated form of the mfgl2shRNA sequences was used as a control. A plasmid named pEGFP-mfgl2 expressing the mfgl2-EGFP fusion protein was also constructed for the screening of the effect of p-mfgl2shRNA on mfgl2 expression. By cotransfection of p-mfgl2shRNA and pEGFP-mfgl2 or pcDNA3.1-mfgl2 expression construct into CHO cells or HeLa cells, the inhibition of mfgl2 expression by mfgl2shRNA was analyzed by direct observation through fluorescent microscopy, FACS, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The experiments showed the significant inhibitory effect of p-mfgl2shRNA on mfgl2 expression at 48h post-transfection in both CHO and Hela cell lines with the inhibitory efficiency as high as 80.1%. The study demonstrated that the construct of p-mfgl2shRNA successfully interfered with the mfgl2 expression in vitro.
Yan-zi CHANG, Yan-chang LEI, Wen WU, Shan-shan CHEN, Han-ju HUANG, Dong-liang YANG and Meng-ji LU. Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein on Interferon-Induced Antiviral Genes Expression and Its Mechanisms[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 374-379.
Emerging data indicated that HCV subverts the antiviral activity of interferon (IFN); however, whether HCV core protein contributes to the process remains controversial. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCV core protein on interferon-induced antiviral gene expression and whether the effect is involved in the activation and negative regulation of the Jak/STAT signaling pathway. Our results showed that, following treatment with IFN-α，the transcription of PKR, MxA and 2’-5’OAS were down-regulated in HepG2 cells expressing the core protein. In the presence of HCV core protein, ISRE-dependent luciferase activity also decreased. Further study indicated that the core protein could inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, whereas the level of STAT1 expression was unchanged. Accordingly, SOCS3, the negative regulator of the Jak/STAT pathway, was induced by HCV core protein. These results suggests that HCV core protein may interfere with the expression of some interferon-induced antiviral genes by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation and induction of SOCS3.
Cong ZHANG, Jun-fa YUAN and Zheng-li SHI. Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus and Taura Syndrome Virus in Penaeus Vannamei Cultured in China*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 380-388.
The Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are two important shrimp viruses in cultured shrimp in America. These two viruses were transmitted to China at the beginning of the 21st century. In this study, 214 shrimp samples of Penaeus vannamei were collected from seven different areas of China and tested by PCR for IHHNV and TSV infection. The results showed that there were a high prevalence of IHHNV (65.42%) and low prevalence of TSV (3.27%) in the tested samples. Several samples were found to be co-infected with these two viruses. A 3 kb fragment of 7 positive IHHNV samples and a structure protein region (ORF2) of three TSV positive samples were amplified and sequenced. The sequence comparison indicated that both IHHNV and TSV sequenced in China have a low genetic variations compared with the prototype IHHNV and TSV from Hawaii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that TSV isolates were clustered into two groups, Asia and America group, which was genetically correlated to geographic distribution
Jian-hua SONG, Chang-yong LIANG and Xin-wen CHEN. Baculovirus-mediated Expression of p35 Confers Resistance to Apoptosis in Human Embryo Kidney 293 cells*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 389-396.
Baculovirus has many advantages as vectors for gene transfer. We demonstrated that recombinant baculovirus vectors expressing p35 (Ac-CMV-p35) and eGFP (Ac-CMV-GFP) could be transduced into human kidney 293 cells efficiently. The level of transgene expression was viral dose dependent and high-level expression of the target gene could be achieved under the heterogonous promoter. MTT assay suggested that both Ac-CMV-p35 and Ac-CMV-GFP did not have cytotoxic effect on human embryo kidney 293 cells. Cell growth curve showed the Ac-CMV-p35 and Ac- CMV-GFP transduced and non-transduced cells had similar proliferation rate, so baculovirus-mediated p35 expression had no adverse effect on cell proliferation. In addition, baculovirus-mediated p35 gene expression protected human embryo kidney 293 cells against apoptosis induced by various apoptosis inducers such as Actinomycin D, UV or serum-free media. These results suggested that the baculovirus vector mediated p35 gene expression was functional and it could be widely used in molecular research and even gene therapy.
Qin FANG, Eng Khuan Seng, Wen DAI and Lan-lan ZHANG. Construction and Co-expression of Grass Carp Reovirus VP6 Protein and Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein in the Insect Cells*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 397-404.
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a disaster agent to aquatic animals, belongs to Genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridea. Sequence analysis revealed GCRV genome segment 8 (s8) was 1 296 bp nucleotides in length encoding an inner capsid protein VP6 of about 43kDa. To obtain in vitro non-fusion expression of a GCRV VP6 protein containing a molecular of fluorescence reporter, the recombinant baculovirus, which contained the GCRVs8 and eGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) genes, was constructed by using the Bac-to-Bac insect expression system. In this study, the whole GCRVs8 and eGFP genes, amplified by PCR, were constructed into a pFastBacDual vector under polyhedron (PH) and p10 promoters, respectively. The constructed dual recombinant plasmid (pFbDGCRVs8/eGFP) was transformed into DH10Bac cells to obtain recombinant Bacmid (AcGCRVs8/eGFP) by transposition. Finally, the recombinant bacluovirus (vAcGCRVs8/eGFP) was obtained from transfected Sf9 insect cells. The green fluorescence that was expressed by transfected Sf9 cells was initially observed 3 days post transfection, and gradually enhanced and extended around 5 days culture in P1(Passage1) stock. The stable high level expression of recombinant protein was observed in P2 and subsequent passage budding virus (BV) stock. Additionally, PCR amplification from P1 and amplified P2 BV stock further confirmed the validity of the dual-recombinant baculovirus. Our results provide a foundation for expression and assembly of the GCRV structural protein in vitro.
Wei-feng SHI, Zhong ZHANG, Lei PENG, Yan-zhou ZHANG, Bin LIU and Chao-dong ZHU. Proteotyping: A New Approach Studying Influenza Virus Evolution at the Protein Level*[J]. Virologica Sinica, 2007, 22(5): 405-411.
Phylogenetic methods have been widely used to detect the evolution of influenza viruses. However, previous phylogenetic studies of influenza viruses do not make full use of the genetic information at the protein level and therefore cannot distinguish the subtle differences among viral genes. Proteotyping is a new approach to study influenza virus evolution. It aimed at mining the potential genetic information of the viral gene at the protein level by visualizing unique amino acid signatures (proteotypes). Neuraminidase gene fragments of some H5N1 avian influenza viruses were used as an example to illustrate how the proteotyping method worked. Bayesian analysis confirmed that the NA gene tree was mainly divided into three lineages. The NA proteotype analysis further suggested there might be multiple proteotypes within these three lineages and even within single genotypes. At the same time, some proteotypes might even involve more than one genotype. In particular, it also discovered some amino acids of viruses of some genotypes might co-reassort. All these results proved this approach could provide additional information in contrast to results from standard phylogenetic tree analysis.