Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and cannot be propagated in vitro, which has impeded the progress of investigating its replication mechanism. Construction of an RHDV replicon system has recently provided a platform for exploring RHDV replication in host cells. Here, aided by this replicon system and using twostep affinity purification, we purified the RHDV replicase and identified its associated host factors. We identified rabbit nucleolin (NCL) as a physical link, which mediating the interaction between other RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-related host proteins and the viral replicase RdRp. We found that the overexpression or knockdown of NCL significantly increased or severely impaired RHDV replication in RK-13 cells, respectively. NCL was identified to directly interact with RHDV RdRp, p16, and p23. Furthermore, NCL knockdown severely impaired the binding of RdRp to RdRp-related host factors. Collectively, these results indicate that the host protein NCL is essential for RHDV replication and acts as a physical link between viral replicase and host proteins.
Viruses in aquatic ecosystems are characterized by extraordinary abundance and diversity. Thus far, there have been limited studies focused on viral communities in river water systems. Here, we investigated the virome of the Yangtze River Delta using viral metagenomic analysis. The compositions of viral communities from six sampling sites were analyzed and compared. By using library construction and next generation sequencing, contigs and singlet reads similar to viral sequences were classified into 17 viral families, including nine dsDNA viral families, four ssDNA viral families and four RNA viral families. Statistical analysis using Friedman test suggested that there was no significant difference among the six sampling sites (P > 0.05). The viromes in this study were all dominated by the order Caudovirales, and a group of Freshwater phage uvFW species were particularly prevalent among all the samples. The virome from Nanjing presented a unique pattern of viral community composition with a relatively high abundance of family Parvoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses based on virus hallmark genes showed that the Caudovirales order and CRESS-DNA viruses presented high genetic diversity, while viruses in the Microviridae and Parvoviridae families and the Riboviria realm were relatively conservative. Our study provided the first insight into viral community composition in large river ecosystem, revealing the diversity and stability of river water virome, contributing to the proper utilization of freshwater resource.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious zoonotic disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since its outbreak in Guangdong Province of China in 2002, SARS has caused 8096 infections and 774 deaths by December 31th 2003. Although there have been no more SARS cases reported in human populations since 2004, the recent emergence of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) indicates the potential of the recurrence of SARS and other coronavirus disease among humans. Thus, developing a rapid response SARS vaccine to provide protection for human populations is still needed. Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV can induce neutralizing antibodies, which is a pivotal immunogenic antigen for vaccine development. Here we constructed a recombinant chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) VSVƤG-SARS, in which the glycoprotein (G) gene is replaced with the SARS-CoV S gene. VSVƤG-SARS maintains the bullet-like shape of the native VSV, with the heterogeneous S protein incorporated into its surface instead of G protein. The results of safety trials revealed that VSVƤG-SARS is safe and effective in mice at a dose of 1106 TCID50. More importantly, only a single-dose immunization of 2107 TCID50 can provide high-level neutralizing antibodies and robust T cell responses to non-human primate animal models. Thus, our data indicate that VSVƤG-SARS can be used as a rapid response vaccine candidate. Our study on the recombinant VSV-vectored SARS-CoV vaccines can accumulate experience and provide a foundation for the new coronavirus disease in the future.
After dengue virus (DENV) infection, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is easy to occur when the neutralizing antibody (NAb) gradually decreases to a sub-neutralizing concentration. In this cohort surveillance, we utilized sera samples collected from dengue fever patients at different convalescent phases in Jinghong City, to investigate the dynamic change rule of DENV-specific antibodies, and to analyze the risk of ADE caused by secondary infection with heterologous serotypes DENVs. For baseline serosurvey, 191 four-year and 99 six-year sera samples during convalescence were collected in 2017 and 2019, respectively. The positive rate of DENV-specific immunoglobulin G was 98.4% in 2017, which significantly decreased to 82.8% in 2019. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of NAb decreased from 1:155.35 to 1:46.66. Among 290 overall samples, 73 paired consecutive samples were used for follow-up serosurvey. In four-year sera, the GMTs of NAb against DENV3 and cross-reactive antibodies against DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-4 were 1:167.70, 1:13.80, 1:18.54 and 1:45.26, respectively, which decreased to 1:53.18, 1:10.30, 1:14.60 and 1:8.17 in six-year sera. In age-stratified analysis, due to the increasing number of ADE positive samples from 2017 to 2019 in 31–40 and 51–60 years groups, the risk of ADE in DENV-4 infection was positively associated with the extension of convalescent phase, and the odd ratio was higher than other groups. With the recovery period lengthened, the risk of secondary infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2 was reduced. Our results offer essential experimental data for risk prediction of severe dengue in hyper-endemic dengue areas, and provide crucial scientific insight for the development of effective dengue vaccines.
Editor in Chief: Zheng-Li Shi
2020 Impact Factor 4.327
2020 Journal Citation Reports