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Citation: Qizan Gong, Changle Wang, Xia Chuai, Sandra Chiu. Monkeypox virus: a re-emergent threat to humans [J].VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2022, 37(4) : 477-482.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virs.2022.07.006

Monkeypox virus: a re-emergent threat to humans

  • Corresponding author: Xia Chuai, chuaixiahb@126.com
    Sandra Chiu, qiux@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 07 June 2022
    Accepted Date: 05 July 2022
    Available online: 09 July 2022
  • Human monkeypox (MPX) is a rare zoonotic infection characterized by smallpox-like signs and symptoms. It is caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), a double stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus. MPX was first identified in 1970 and mostly prevailed in the rural rainforests of Central and West Africa in the past. Outside Africa, MPX was reported in the United Kingdom, the USA, Israel, and Singapore. In 2022, the resurgence of MPX in Europe and elsewhere posed a potential threat to humans. MPXV was transmitted by the animals-human or human-human pathway, and the symptoms of MPXV infection are similar to that of smallpox, but in a milder form and with lower mortality (1%–10%). Although the smallpox vaccination has been shown to provide 85% protection against MPXV infection, and two anti-smallpox virus drugs have been approved to treat MPXV, there are still no specific vaccines and drugs against MPXV infection. Therefore it is urgent to take active measures including the adoption of novel anti-MPXV strategies to control the spread of MPXV and prevent MPX epidemic. In this review, we summarize the biological features, epidemiology, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention and treatment strategies on MPXV. This review provides the basic knowledge for prevention and control of future outbreaks of this emerging infection.

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      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

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    Monkeypox virus: a re-emergent threat to humans

      Corresponding author: Xia Chuai, chuaixiahb@126.com
      Corresponding author: Sandra Chiu, qiux@ustc.edu.cn
    • a Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China;
    • b Department of Pathogenic Biology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050017, China

    Abstract: Human monkeypox (MPX) is a rare zoonotic infection characterized by smallpox-like signs and symptoms. It is caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), a double stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus. MPX was first identified in 1970 and mostly prevailed in the rural rainforests of Central and West Africa in the past. Outside Africa, MPX was reported in the United Kingdom, the USA, Israel, and Singapore. In 2022, the resurgence of MPX in Europe and elsewhere posed a potential threat to humans. MPXV was transmitted by the animals-human or human-human pathway, and the symptoms of MPXV infection are similar to that of smallpox, but in a milder form and with lower mortality (1%–10%). Although the smallpox vaccination has been shown to provide 85% protection against MPXV infection, and two anti-smallpox virus drugs have been approved to treat MPXV, there are still no specific vaccines and drugs against MPXV infection. Therefore it is urgent to take active measures including the adoption of novel anti-MPXV strategies to control the spread of MPXV and prevent MPX epidemic. In this review, we summarize the biological features, epidemiology, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention and treatment strategies on MPXV. This review provides the basic knowledge for prevention and control of future outbreaks of this emerging infection.

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