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A Rapid and Sensitive One Step-SYBR Green Based Semi Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for the Detection of peste des petits ruminants Virus in the Clinical Samples

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Arnab Sen, Gnanavel Venkatesan, Vinita Yadav,

2012, 27(1): 1 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3219-z

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A sensitive and rapid single step real time (rt) RT-PCR was standardized using one-step Brilliant SYBR Green kit? for detection and semi-quantitation of peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) using the virus RNA and matrix (M) protein gene-specific primers and compared with established conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-PCR. The assay amplifies a 124 bp fragment of the PPRV M gene with Tm of 78.28 to 78.50. The assay was linear within a range of 50 ng to 0.5 fg total virus RNA with a detection limit (sensitivity) of 0.5 fg. Based on the serial dilution of the live-attenuated PPR vaccine virus, the detection limit was ~0.0001 cell culture infectious dose 50% units (TCID50). Additionally, swab materials spiked with known titre of vaccine virus were equally well detected in the assay. The standardized rt RT-PCR was easily employed for the detection of PPRV nucleic acid directly in the field and experimental clinical samples. The assay detected the PPRV nucleic acid as early as 3 day post infection (dpi) and up to 20 dpi in swab materials from the experimental samples. The assay was rapid and more sensitive than TaqMan and conventional RT-PCR in the detection of PPRV nucleic acid from the PPR suspected clinical samples of sheep and goats. Therefore, the established, simplified SYBR green rt RT-PCR is an alternative test to the already existing various diagnostic assays and could be useful for rapid clinical diagnosis with advantage in reducing risk of contamination.

Genetic Analysis of the P1 Region of Human Enterovirus 71 Strains and Expression of the 55 F StrainVP1 Protein

Jian-qiang Li, Jun-jie Yang, Xiu-juan Fan, Zhen-peng Sun, Yan Sun, Huan Li, Zi-xin Meng and Wei Li,

2012, 27(1): 10 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3206-4

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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of the Entero-virus genus of the Picornaviridae family and is the major cause of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Different strains from Gansu were cloned and the P1 protein was sequenced and analysed. Results indicate that there are three kinds of EV71 infections prevalent in Gansu. The VP1 protein from one of these strains, 55F, was expressed. The recombinant protein was expressed with high level and reacted specifically with the EV71 patient antibody, the recombinant protein was also applied to raise antiserum in rabbits and after the fourth injection a high titer of antiserum was detected by ELISA assay. These data are useful for further clarification of prevalent EV71 strains in the north of China at the molecular level and provide a basis for EV71 diagnosis.

Research Article

Inhibitory Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Apoptosis Caused by HSV-1 in Human Glioma Cells

Yuan-Yuan Liang, Bin Wang, Dong-Meng Qian, Ling Li, Zhi-Hao Wang, Ming Hu and Xu-Xia Song,

2012, 27(1): 19 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3220-6

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To investigate the inhibitory effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on apoptosis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1(HSV-1) in Human Glioma Cells (U251), U251 cells were infected by HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection of 5 and GRb1, GRb1+HSV-1, HSV-1 and control groups. MTT and cell apoptosis assays were used to detect the inhibitory effects of GRb1 on the apoptosis of U251 cells that caused by HSV-1 infection for various concentrations of drug and virus treatments by MTT assay. We found that in the 400 μg/mL GRb1 and 400 μg/mL GRb1+HSV-1 groups, MTT values were higher than control group at all times (P<0. 05). Moreover, the apoptosis rate in the 400 μg/mL GRb1+HSV-1 group was lower than the HSV-1 group (P<0. 05). These results confirmed that, at appropriate concentrations, GRb1 could inhibit nerve cell apoptosis in HSV-1 infections.

Molecular and in vitro Characterization of Field Isolates of Bovine Herpesvirus-1

Julian Ruiz-Saenz, Jairo Jaime, Gloria Ramirez and Victor Vera,

2012, 27(1): 26 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3221-5

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Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is distributed worldwide and is a major pathogen in cattle, being the causal agent of a variety of clinical syndromes. The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize (molecular and biological characterization) BoHV-1 from 29 immunosuppressed animals. It was possible to obtain 18 isolates, each from a different animal, such as from the respiratory and reproductive tracts. In some cases the cytopathic effect was visible 12 hours post-inoculation, and became characteristic after 36-48 hours. Biological characteristics were evaluated and compared with Iowa and Colorado-1 reference strains, and differences were found in plaque size, virus titer measured by TCID50 and PFU/mL, and one step virus curves. These results showed that some isolates had a highly virulent-like behavior in vitro, compared to the reference strains, with shorter eclipse periods, faster release of virus into the supernatants, and higher burst size and viral titer. There were no differences in glycoprotein expression of BoHV-1 isolates, measured by Western blot on monolayers. Moreover, using restriction endonucleases analysis, most of the viruses were confirmed as BoHV-1.1 and just one of them was confirmed as BoHV-1.2a subtype. These findings suggest that some wild-type BoHV-1 isolates could be useful as seeds to develop new monovalent vaccines.

HCV NS5A and NS5B Enhance Expression of Human Ceramide Glucosyltransferase Gene

Jia Guo, Ran Yan, Guo-dong Xu, Cong-yi Zheng

2012, 27(1): 38 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3226-0

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Host genes involved in lipid metabolism are differentially affected during the early stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here we demonstrate that artificial up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis has a positive effect on the replication of the HCV full-length replicon when cells were treated with nystatin. Conversely, the HCV RNA replication was decreased when fatty acid biosynthesis was inhibited with 25-hydroxycholesterol and PDMP(D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3- morpholino-1-propanol). In agreement with these results, the expression level of GlcT-1(ceramide glucosyltransferase), a host glucosyltransferase in the first step of GSL (glycosphingolipid) biosynthesis, was found to be closely associated with the expression and replication of HCV RNA. On the other hand, the viral RNA can also activate GlcT-1 in the early stage of viral RNA transfection in vitro. To identify viral factors that are responsible for GlcT-1 activation, we constructed ten stable Vero cell lines that express individual HCV proteins. Based on the analyses of these cell lines and transient transfection assay of the GlcT-1 promoter regions, we conclude that HCV proteins, especially NS5A and NS5B, have positive effects on the expression of GlcT-1. It is possible that NS5A and NS5B stimulate transcription factor(s) to activate the expression of GlcT-1 by increasing its transcription level.

Development of Multiple ELISAs for the Detection of Antibodies against Classical Swine Fever Virus in Pig Sera

Zhen-hua Yang, Ling Li, Zi-shu Pan

2012, 27(1): 48 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3227-z

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The major immunogenic proteins (Erns, E2 and NS3) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) (Shimen strain) were expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant antigens were applied to develop multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific antibodies in pig sera. Optimum cut-off values were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis after testing 201 sera of vaccinated pigs and 64 negative sera of unvaccinated piglets. The multiple ELISAs were validated with 265 pig sera yielding high sensitivity and specificity in comparison with the virus neutralization results. The results demonstrated that multiple ELISAs can be a valuable tool for the detection of CSFV infection and serological surveys in CSFV-free countries or for the evaluation of the antibody responses in pigs induced by a live attenuated C-strain vaccination.

The Protamine-like DNA-binding Protein P6.9 Epigenetically Up-regulates Autographa alifornica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Gene Transcription in the Late Infection Phase

Ying Peng, Kun Li, Rong-juan Pei, Chun-chen Wu, Chang-yong Liang, Yun Wang and Xin-wen Chen,

2012, 27(1): 57 doi: 10.1007/s12250-012-3229-x

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Protamines are a group of highly basic proteins first discovered in spermatozoon that allow for denser packaging of DNA than histones and will result in down-regulation of gene transcription[1]. It is well recognized that the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) encodes P6.9, a protamine-like protein that forms the viral subnucleosome through binding to the viral genome[29]. Previous research demonstrates that P6.9 is essential for viral nucleocapsid assembly, while it has no influence on viral genome replication[31]. In the present study, the role of P6.9 in viral gene transcription regulation is characterized. In contrast to protamines or other protamine-like proteins that usually down-regulate gene transcription, P6.9 appears to up-regulate viral gene transcription at 12-24 hours post infection (hpi), whereas it is non-essential for the basal level of viral gene transcription. Fluorescence microscopy reveals the P6.9’s co-localization with DNA is temporally and spatially synchronized with P6.9’s impact on viral gene transcription, indicating the P6.9-DNA association contributes to transcription regulation. Chromatin fractionation assay further reveals an unexpected co-existence of P6.9 and host RNA polymerase II in the same transcriptionally active chromatin fraction at 24 hpi, which may probably contribute to viral gene transcription up-regulation in the late infection phase.